White Papers

A white paper is an OGC member approved publication released by the OGC to the Public that states a position on one or more technical considerations or other subjects that are germane to the work of the OGC, often including a high-level explanation of a standards based architecture or framework of a solution. A White Paper often explains the results or conclusions of research. A White Paper is not an official position of the OGC.

Click here to view previously published white papers.

Document Title (click to view/download) Version Doc.# Editor Date
Architecture of an Access Management Federation for Spatial Data and Services in Germany ? ?OGC 12-026 ?Andreas Matheus 2012-04-18
An Access Management Federation (AMF) is a network of organizations that trust each other for the means of sharing protected resources among each other. Worldwide, many academic AMFs are available for the purpose of sharing information and services between academic institutions such as Universities and Research Organizations. In the academia, some of the well known AMFs are UK Access Management Federation (United Kingdom http://www.ukfederation.org.uk/), In Common (USA http://www.incommon.org/) and DFN-AAI (Germany https://www.aai.dfn.de).
Big Geospatial Data – an OGC White Paper ? ?16-131r2 ?George Percivall 2017-09-25
This white paper is a survey of Big Geospatial Data with these main themes: Geospatial data is increasing in volume and variety; New Big Data computing techniques are being applied to geospatial data; Geospatial Big Data techniques benefit many applications; and Open standards are needed for interoperability, efficiency, innovation and cost effectiveness. The main purpose of this White Paper is to identify activities to be undertaken in OGC Programs that advance the Big Data capabilities as applied to geospatial information. This white paper was developed based on two Location Powers events: Location Powers: Big Data, Orlando, September 20th, 2016; and Location Powers: Big Linked Data, Delft, March 22nd, 2017. For information on Location Powers: http://www.locationpowers.net/pastevents/
Cyberarchitecture for Geosciences White Paper ? ?OGC 11-145 ?George Percivall 2014-05-20
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is developing "EarthCube” - Towards a National Data Infrastructure for Earth System Science . In a new partnership between GEO and the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure, NSF seeks transformative concepts and approaches to create a sustained, integrated data management infrastructure spanning the Geosciences. Meeting the challenges in geoscience research requires innovation and paradigm shifts in cyberinfrastructure. Information technology must advance to meet the emerging approaches to science. A cyber-architecture identifies repeatable patterns, reusable components, and open standards that provide starting point for innovative developments. This white paper was written by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) members and associates to contribute to development of the NSF EarthCube. This document does not represent an official position of the OGC. However, the discussions in this document could very well lead to NSF developments and subsequent OGC documents. Recipients of this document are invited to reply to the authors’ with notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.
Geospatial Business Intelligence (GeoBI) ? ?OGC 09-044r3 ?George Percivall, Raj Singh 2012-07-12
BI is an umbrella term for a major component of IT infrastructure. It encompasses Data Warehouses, Business Analytics, Dashboards and Scorecards. This IT infrastructure is associated with C-level decision-making in an organization. These decision-making tools have typically included location as a dumb attribute (coded sales zones as opposed to sales zones as geographic boundaries). At this point in the BI lifecycle, customers are looking to derive additional business benefit / return on investment from intelligent location data; data discovery and unstructured data.
OGC Compliance Overview - Guide for Software Acquisition ? ?15-002r5 ?Luis Bermudez 2015-04-20
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC?) provides international standards that are implemented worldwide in thousands of applications that use location information. To reduce the risk of applications not implementing a standard correctly, the OGC provides a compliance process for testing and certifying implementations. OGC certification provides substantial evidence that an implementation that is claimed to have implemented an OGC standard will interoperate as specified and in the same manner as other compliant implementations, regardless of who developed them. This white paper provides guidance regarding language to specify requirements for OGC compliant and implementing products in software acquisition (procurement) documents.
OGC Compliance Testing White Paper ? ?OGC 10-128 ?Luis Bermudez 2010-10-22
This white paper describes the OGC Compliance Testing Program. It provides information about: ? The need for compliance testing to enable interoperability ? How to obtain compliance certification ? The difference between implementing and being certified ? How compliance benefits providers and users of technology ? The proper use of the “Certified OGC Compliant” mark ? Suggested language for procurement documents ? Trademark licensing fees ? An example of an OGC compliance test
OGC Identifiers - the case for http URIs ? ?10-124r1 ?Simon Cox 2010-07-15
The OGC provides a large number of resources to support the construction of spatial data infrastructures, including documents, specifications, schemas and concept definitions. When deployed, the infrastructures require persistent reference to these resources, enabled by persistent identifiers. This may be at various level of granularity.
OGC Information Technology Standards for Sustainable Development ? ?14-095 ?Lance McKee 2015-01-22
Sustainable development, "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, " will be accomplished by balancing social, economic and environmental objectives. In this paper the authors explain that rigorous standards for communicating environmental data are absolutely essential to enable social and economic progress in the Age of the Environment – the Anthropocene Epoch – in which humanity's expanding footprint has become the main cause of change in the planet's geology, water bodies, atmosphere and biosphere. The authors argue for a concerted and ongoing global effort to 1) define data communication and system interoperability requirements for environmental science, business and policy, and then 2) develop and implement consensus-derived, free and open environmental Information Technology (IT) standards that meet those requirements and that co-evolve with the larger IT standards framework and advances in IT.
OGC Information Technology Standards for Sustainable Development ? ?14-095 ?Lance McKee 2015-01-23
Sustainable development, "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs,1 " will be accomplished by balancing social, economic and environmental objectives. In this paper the authors explain that rigorous standards for communicating environmental data are absolutely essential to enable social and economic progress in the Age of the Environment2 – the Anthropocene Epoch3 – in which humanity's expanding footprint has become the main cause of change in the planet's geology, water bodies, atmosphere and biosphere. The authors argue for a concerted and ongoing global effort to 1) define data communication and system interoperability requirements for environmental science, business and policy, and then 2) develop and implement consensus-derived, free and open environmental Information Technology (IT) standards that meet those requirements and that co-evolve with the larger IT standards framework and advances in IT.
OGC Sensor Web Enablement: Overview and High Level Architecture ? ?OGC 07-165r1 ?Mike Botts, George Percivall, Carl Reed, John Davidson 2013-04-02
A sensor network is a computer accessible network of many, spatially distributed devices using sensors to monitor conditions at different locations, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants[1]. A Sensor Web refers to web accessible sensor networks and archived sensor data that can be discovered and accessed using standard protocols and application program interfaces (APIs).
OGC Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework ? ?14-115 ?George Percivall 2015-01-21
This White Paper supports development of a Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework based on these themes: K Smart Cities are high-density generators of innovation and information. K Location information is a major enabler of Smart City technology benefits. K Benefits of smart technology must be judged by benefits to residents. K Reuse and repurpose is vital to urban resilience K Open standards are needed for interoperability, efficiency, application innovation and cost effectiveness. Discussion of these themes and this white paper will occur at the OGC Smart Cities Location Powers Summit in Tokyo on December 2, 2014, 1 the co-located OGC Technical Committee meeting, and in many other forums in the future. As described in this paper, there are many standards initiatives that focus on Smart Cities. Most Smart Cities use cases in some way involve indoor and/or outdoor location, and thus communication about location is an issue that cuts across the work programs most of the standards organizations that are involved with Smart Cities. This white paper builds on the OGC - Directions Magazine webinar: “Making Location Work for Smart Cities – the Case for Location Standards”2.
OGC Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework ? ?14-115 ?George Percivall 2015-01-21
This White Paper supports development of a Smart Cities Spatial Information Framework based on these themes: - Smart Cities are high-density generators of innovation and information. - Location information is a major enabler of Smart City technology benefits. - Benefits of smart technology must be judged by benefits to residents. - Reuse and repurpose is vital to urban resilience - Open standards are needed for interoperability, efficiency, application innovation and cost effectiveness. Discussion of these themes and this white paper will occur at the OGC Smart Cities Location Powers Summit in Tokyo on December 2, 2014,1 the co-located OGC Technical Committee meeting, and in many other forums in the future. As described in this paper, there are many standards initiatives that focus on Smart Cities. Most Smart Cities use cases in some way involve indoor and/or outdoor location, and thus communication about location is an issue that cuts across the work programs most of the standards organizations that are involved with Smart Cities. This white paper builds on the OGC - Directions Magazine webinar: “Making Location Work for Smart Cities – the Case for Location Standards”2.
OGC Standards and Cloud Computing ? ?OGC 11-036 ?Lance McKee, Carl Reed, Steven Ramage 2011-04-07
This OGC White Paper discusses cloud computing from the perspective of OGC’s geospatial standards development activities and standards baseline. The paper begins with a discussion of what the cloud and cloud computing are. Unfortunately, there is still considerable misunderstanding in the geospatial technology community regarding cloud computing. The paper then discusses how standards figure into the options, benefits and risks of cloud computing for users and providers of geospatial data and software. This perspective is important not only for those immersed in geospatial technology, but also for cloud service providers, customers and technology partners who may be unfamiliar with the basic issues surrounding geospatial technology. This white paper does not discuss vendor specific cloud computing platforms.
OGC White Paper on Land Administration ? ?18-008r1 ?Christiaan Lemmen, Peter van Oosterom, Mohsen Kalantari, Eva-Maria Unger, Cornelis de Zeeuw 2019-02-12
This white paper provides an overview of the land administration domain and proposes actions needed for design and develop implementation standards this domain. A close cooperation between the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO is expected to accelerate those developments. A huge task is waiting: the establishment of land rights for all: young and old, rich and poor, male and female. Data on many millions of parcels, spatial units, (use-) rights, persons, and parties have to be collected, linked, maintained, and published. Land Administration Systems (LAS) should be designed for maintenance of the dynamic relations between people and land. Existing land administrations require extensions: such as 3D and 4D functionality and datasets, blockchain for transparent transactions, generic processes and integration with remote sensing, and processes to support conversion from social to legal tenure. A broad range of geospatial technologies and applications are available. They range from satellite and drone imaging and mapping, to geodesy, precise positioning, geo‐information science, cartography, spatial data infrastructure, and many surveying sub‐disciplines. The scientific and professional disciplines in the geospatial community design, develop, and apply those technologies. Apart from this technical component, a land administration also has a social and legal component. This makes land administration an arena where, apart from the geospatial community, many different scientific and professional disciplines meet. Depending on the stage of development and the level of societal acceptance of the land administration, those disciplines involved may be different.
OGC? Open Geospatial APIs - White Paper ? ?16-019r4 ?George Percivall 2017-02-23
OGC defines interfaces that enable interoperability of geospatial applications. API’s are a popular method to implement interfaces for accessing spatial data. This White Paper provides a discussion of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to support discussion of possible actions in the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
OGC? Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture ? ?07-165r1 ?Carl Reed, Mike Botts, George Percivall, John Davidson 2013-04-02
This OGC White Paper provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC focus area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE).
Open Source and Open Standards ? ?OGC 11-110 ?Arnulf Christl and Carl Reed 2011-08-11
This article is a White Paper jointly published by OGC and OSGeo. It was approved as an official joint OSGeo and OGC White Paper by the OSGeo Board of Directors in their 2011-05-05 Board meeting. The text was collaboratively edited, reviewed and finalized by more than a a dozen active OSGeo and OGC members. Thanks especially to Gavin Fleming, Lance McKee, Markus Neteler, Athina Trakas, Michael Gerlek, Adrian Custer, Jeff McKenna, Cameron Shorter, Carl Reed, Frank Warmerdam, Steven Ramage, Daniel Morissette, Arnulf Christl and others for their contributions. Please feel free to add comments, criticisms, links to other concise definitions on the associated Talk page: http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_and_Open_Standards.
The Open Geospatial Consortium and EarthCube ? ?OGC 11-159 ?David Maidment, Ben Domenico, Alastair Gemmell, Kerstin Lehnert, David Tarboton, Ilya Zaslavsky 2011-10-19
EarthCube aims to create an integrated system to access, analyze and share information that is used by the entire geosciences community. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an organization of which more than four hundred companies and agencies are members, whose purpose is to create open source standards for sharing geospatial and observational information. The authors of this paper are users of OGC standards in our work in hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography and in the solid earth sciences, in other words, in key disciplinary fields that contribute to the Geosciences. Moreover, the OGC has an effective process for engaging individuals from many countries in standards development and interoperability testing that encourages them to set aside the roles they play in their home organizations and instead focus just on what is needed to share a particular class of information across the globe. This paper examines the hypothesis that an OGC-like process could be useful for broader sharing of information in the geosciences.
The Role of Geospatial in Edge-Fog-Cloud Computing - An OGC White Paper ? ?18-004r1 ?George Percivall 2018-07-31
“The cloud is dead – long live the cloud!” so begins an IEC White paper on Edge Intelligence.[1] The IEC White Paper continues that “Driven by the internet of things (IoT), a new computing model – edge-cloud computing – is currently evolving, which involves extending data processing to the edge of a network in addition to computing in a cloud or a central data centre. Edge-Fog-Cloud computing models operate both on premise and in public and private clouds, including via devices, base stations, edge servers, micro data centres and networks.”